Marketing Glossary

The most important terms in omnichannel marketing

In our marketing glossary, you will find the most important technical terms from omnichannel marketing explained in an understandable way.


– A –

Subscription Commerce
Subscription-based business models that offer regular deliveries or services.

An advertorial is an advertisement in the form of an editorial article. In contrast to an editorial contribution, this is subject to a charge and should be labelled as such. The advertiser provides the content of the post.

Affiliates, engl. Partners, advertise products or services of third-party companies on their websites. If the sale is successful, the affiliates receive a commission from the respective company.

see AI (artificial intelligence).

An unambiguous specification of how to solve a how particular problem.

Analytics are analyses. New insights are to be gained with the help of analyses. This can be both retrospective, to work out facts, or forward-looking, to make predictions with the help of AI. A basic distinction is made between data analytics and business analytics. Although both involve refining and analyzing data, business analytics deals exclusively with the use of enterprise data. Data analytics, on the other hand, is not limited to business applications and is used in various fields (e.g., science). The methods of analysis can be divided into four categories: Descriptive, Diagnostic, Predictive and Prescriptive Analytics.

Angular is one of the most popular and widely used JavaScript frameworks. It is open source, licensed by MIT and actively supported by Google. The code base has been completely rewritten and is now based on the TypeScript language. The focus of the project has expanded from the development of a framework to the development of an entire platform for web applications.

API is the abbreviation for “Application Programming Interface” and the technical term for a programming interface. APIs are used to connect independent software programs so that they can communicate with each other and exchange data.

App is the English abbreviation for Application. It is an application software for mobile devices or mobile operating systems.

See also Media Asset

Attributes or product attributes are characteristics that distinguish a product and set it apart from other products. Typical product attributes are name, product ID, size, color or weight of a product. For services, for example, the duration offered.

Augmented Reality (AR)
Augmented Reality (AR for short) is a concept for adding virtual aspects to the real world by means of technical devices. The virtual aspects can be texts, graphics, images or videos.

Auto-tagging refers to the automated labeling of digital content with keywords (labels or tags). See also Tagging.

An avatar is a fictitious photo or artificial figure of a real person that is used in virtual environments (Internet forums, social media, computer games, apps, etc.) as a proxy for the Internet user.

– B –

The back-end is the background of a software. In contrast to the front-end, the data of an application is processed and stored here.

Best-of-Breed is an approach to the selection of software. This involves finding and implementing the best possible software solution for every business purpose and every use case. The best individual solutions from different suppliers are combined to form an individual overall solution. The counterpart to best-of-breed is the Best-of-Suite approach.

Best-of-Suite refers to an approach in which software is introduced as a whole or in the form of a complete system. As a rule, the Best-of-Suite approach is accompanied by an established market leader that can map a wide range of processes with its all-in-one platform. Third-party providers can be integrated into the platform here if required. The counterpart to Best-of-Suite is Best-of-Breed.

BI stands for Business Intelligence. This is a technology-driven process to analyze data. The information gained from this helps users make informed business decisions.

Big Data
Big Data, also commonly referred to as “mass data” in German-speaking countries, refers to large, unstructured data that consumers and companies generate every day via systems, mobile devices and electronic sensors. Since the volume of data is too large and too complex to process manually, the data is stored, managed and analyzed with the help of suitable software solutions.

BIM is an abbreviation and stands for Building Information Modeling. This refers to a method of digitally representing buildings. The digital representation covers the entire life cycle of a building model, including all relevant information (physical and functional features). The aim of BIM is to bring together all project participants centrally in order to make construction projects such as buildings, bridges or tunnels more efficient, economical and sustainable through integral planning processes. Since data in a BIM software is continuously built up over the entire planning process, compatibility with other systems, such as PIM systems for product data, should not be ignored in order to enable a collaborative and efficient implementation.

A blacklist, also called a blacklist or negative list, is the opposite of a whitelist. This is a list that classifies IP addresses or domains as spam based on certain criteria. E-mails from senders on a blacklist are recognized as spam and blocked automatically.

BMEcat is a standardized exchange format specifically for catalog management. This allows catalog and product data to be exchanged between companies. BMEcat was developed on the initiative of the “Bundesverband Materialwirtschaft, Einkauf und Logistik e.V. (BME)”, hence the abbreviation “BME”, and is based on the XML format.

BNPL stands for „Buy Now, Pay Later“. This allows the customer to buy goods on credit. Payment is made after a fixed interest-free period or in instalments.

The abbreviation BOPIS stands for “Buy Online, Pickup in Store”. This allows customers to buy goods online and then collect them from the shop.

Brand Management
Brand Management is the term for brand management. This refers to the development and enhancement of a brand with the aim of differentiating one’s own performance from that of competitors.

Briefing module
The word “briefing” is an Anglicism and means instruction. This is a written or oral briefing on a project to record all the information needed to complete a task. The briefing provides the basis for a project definition between the participants. If briefings are carried out digitally, the corresponding software is called a “briefing module”. With the help of the software, advertising materials and areas such as catalogs or banners can be planned freely or on the basis of templates.

A browser or also called web browser is a software that is responsible for the graphical display of the Internet or web pages. The web browser, as a web client, makes the HTTP requests to a web server, which responds with an HTML document.

Building Information Modeling (BIM)
Siehe BIM

Business-to-Business (B2B)
These are business relationships between two companies or between companies and companies.

Business-to-Customer (B2C)
In contrast to B2B, this refers to business relationships with the end customer or business relationships between companies and end customers.

Business Intelligence (BI)
See BI

Buyer persona
Buyer Buyer personas represent the further development of target groups. Potential customers are given a face in the form of a fictitious person. The goal is to better understand the typical customer in order to tailor content to them more effectively. The information used for this purpose comes partly from real data (e.g. customer interviews or market research) and partly from assumptions. In addition to demographic and biographical data, a buyer persona primarily provides information about the behavioral patterns, professional and private pain points, goals, and desires of the fictitious person.

– C –

In information technology, a cache or cache memory is a buffer memory that holds data ready for repeated access in order to avoid time-consuming recalculations and thus accelerate access times. Cache memories are divided into hardware and software caches. Hardware caches include, for example, the buffer memory on hard disks, while software caches include the cache in the web browser.

CCPM stands for Critical Chain Project Management. This is a project management method that aims at realistic project planning based on available resources and capacities. The focus is on avoiding harmful multitasking, as well as on identifying hidden time reserves.

See Customer Experience Management

A chatbot is an application that simulates a human conversation in a chat based on AI. They are used to answer queries (via text or voice) automatically or without human interaction.

ChatGPT is a chatbot that uses Artificial Intelligence to generate natural sounding responses. Users interact with ChatGPT in a conversational manner, i.e. in a question-and-answer model. The name ChatGPT stands for “Chatbot Generative Pre-trained Transformer”. Originally, ChatGPT was developed for OpenAI’s online customer support.

The cloud refers to the possibility of using external computing services via so-called providers. The services can be software, data or services, which are usually provided via the Internet.

Cloud hosting refers to hosting services that are based on a cloud infrastructure. The data is located in the cluster (server network) instead of locally on own servers.

In the field of information technology, a cluster stands for a number of independent computers that are networked together.

Composable Commerce
Composable commerce is an approach to optimizing the customer experience architecture in e-commerce. Instead of using a complete system, individual core functions or components of E-Commerce solutions are used and put together individually for the respective company. By combining different providers or their best solutions, top performance is achieved in the specific E-Commerce use cases.

Composable PIM
Composable PIM is a flexible selection of core functions or components of PIM systems. Compared to a traditional PIM, a Composable PIM creates a targeted focus that enables companies to achieve top performance in their respective, individual PIM use cases. Composable PIM gives companies the ability to incorporate Best-of-Breed applications such as digital asset management, data quality, hierarchy management, and supplier onboarding alongside broader solutions such as order management, pricing, and campaign management.

Computer vision
Enabling machines to analyze, understand and manipulate images and video.

Confluence is a knowledge management software from the company Atlassian, which was developed for knowledge sharing and collaboration in companies. With Confluence, users can create corporate wikis as well as create projects and work on them in a team.

Content Management System (CMS)
A content management system, or CMS, is software that allows users to create and maintain a website without programming knowledge.

Conversational Commerce
Conversational commerce is a subarea of e-commerce and encompasses all dialog-oriented trading activities between customers and companies. Digital communication takes place in real time from human-to-human or between human and software. Conversational commerce includes online commerce via voice assistants (v-commerce), messaging services (e.g. WhatsApp or Facebook Messenger) and chatbots.

In online marketing, conversion is understood as the transformation of a website visitor from a reader to a doer. What is meant is that a website visitor performs a certain action. An action can be, for example, registering for a newsletter, buying a product, downloading content, signing up for a trial, filling out a contact form, subscribing, sharing on social media, or clicking on a link. Conversions can be divided into macro and micro conversions, whereby the objective varies depending on the business model. The conversion rate is used to measure success.

Conversion Rate
Conversion rate (CRV), also called conversion rate, represents the KPI for measuring conversions. It relates the number of website visitors to the conversions achieved and is expressed as a percentage. The measurement is mostly done via web analytics tools such as Google Analytics.

Cookies are small text files that the web browser stores on the user’s terminal device for the respective website visited. The text files contain information to identify users or their devices via an ID and to recognize them on their next visit. The cookie is either sent to the browser by the web server or generated in the browser itself by a script (e.g. JavaScript). Website operators must inform their visitors about cookie usage when they first visit the site, with the option of consent or refusal. Likewise, the option to adjust the cookie settings later must be available.

Corporate Design
, Corporate design, not to be confused with corporate identity, is the visual appearance of a company. It includes the uniform appearance of a company or organization, such as the logo, the corporate color or even the typography, to support the corporate identity both externally and internally. In order to implement this image in a holistic manner, design guidelines are established in which the design constants are laid down and assigned to their areas of application.

CPC is an abbreviation for cost-per-click. This is a performance-based billing method in online marketing in which advertising costs are dependent on the number of clicks. Consequently, it reflects the average price of a clicked ad. The best-known user of CPC is Google with its Google Ads form of advertising. CPC is also used in affiliate marketing.

CPL is short for Cost-Per-Lead. This is used to determine the average costs incurred to generate a lead. The calculation is made using the advertising spend for all leads divided by the number of leads, or CPL = advertising spend for all leads / number of leads.

CPM (Cost-per-Mile)
CPM is an abbreviation for Cost-per-Mille. Also known as TCP (thousand-contact price). This is a billing model in media planning. This refers to advertising costs per thousand view contacts (impressions), or what an ad costs to play on the screens of 1,000 people. The provider is billed after 1,000 impressions have been generated. CPM is not only used in online marketing, but also in TV, radio or print advertising. Instead of visual contact, audience or listener figures are used here, for example. The CPM is calculated by the price of the ad and the respective reach of the advertising format: CPM = (ad price / reach) * 1,000

CPM (Critical-Path-Method)
CPM stands for Critical-Path-Method. This is a project management method that identifies the critical path of a project, i.e. the longest chain of interrelated activities. The goal is to avoid process bottlenecks and maintain planning flexibility by identifying the critical path.

A crawler, also called a web crawler, spider, searchbot or robot, is a computer program that automatically searches the Internet and analyzes data from websites. It is used by search engines to index websites. In addition, crawlers are also used to collect web feeds, e-mail addresses or other information. The name „crawler“ is derived from the first search engine – the web crawler.

Cross Media Publishing
Cross-Media-Publishing is the cross-media (print, online, mobile etc.) publishing of content based on media-neutral data.

In Cross-Shopping, one and the same consumer explores products from several retailers or different brands in order to find the best offer for them.

See also Conversion Rate

CSV, short for comma-separated values, is a file format for simply structured data. The core task of CSV files is to describe the structure of a text file for its storage. This makes it possible to merge data, lists or tables that are not directly connected to each other. In addition, CSV is also used to import and export data from different systems. As the name „Comma-seprated values“ suggests, commas are used to separate the data records.

CTA is an abbreviation and stands for Call-to-Action. It is a request for action. This refers to prompts that are intended to trigger a specific action in potential customers. In online marketing, call-to-actions are presented in the form of buttons (buttons on websites, in e-mailings, etc.); in TV or radio commercials, they are prompts to the viewer or listener. The prompts can be sales-promoting (Buy now, Subscribe now, etc.) or for generating leads (Learn more, Try now, Subscribe to newsletter, etc.).

CTR is an abbreviation for click-through rate. This is a key figure from online marketing for determining the percentage of clicks on an ad. It indicates how often people have clicked on an ad after it has been displayed and is used to evaluate the respective ad content. The number of clicks is put in relation to the number of impressions (ad impressions): (clicks / impressions) * 100. For example, if the ad generates 100 impressions and is clicked 5 times, the CTR is 5%.

CUI is an abbreviation for Conversational User Interfaces. This refers to a user interface for computers that emulates a conversation with a real person – such as chatbots, voice assistants or messenger services.

Curated Shopping
Curated Shopping is also known as curated e-commerce. This refers to a service that enhances the online shopping experience with personalised advice. At the beginning, customers state their preferences and receive a selection of products based on a personal consultation. It is easy to return items that do not meet your expectations.

The term customer centricity refers to a sales and marketing approach that focuses on the customer and their needs as well as the customer relationship.

Customer Experience (CX)
Customer experience, or CX for short, is a marketing term that means customer experience. It refers to all the experiences a customer has with a company or brand during their customer journey at the various touchpoints. Positive experiences improve the image of a company or brand, negative experiences lead to a poor perception by the customer.

Customer Experience Management
Customer experience management, or CEM for short, encompasses all of a company’s strategies and measures for positively influencing a customer during his or her customer journey. It is a holistic approach with the goal of transforming customer experiences into positive experiences and thus further expanding customer satisfaction and customer loyalty. CEM is crucial for sustainable growth and the economic success of companies.

Customer Journey
The Customer Journey describes a customer’s path through various contact points or touchpoints before making a purchase decision.

Customer Relationship Management System (CRM)
A Customer Relationship Management System, CRM for short, is software for managing customer relations. It is focused on building and maintaining relationships with existing and potential customers.

See Customer Experience

Cyber Monday
Cyber Monday, originally the digital equivalent of Black Friday, is the second biggest shopping day of the year and takes place on the Monday after Thanksgiving (between 26 November and 2 December).

– D –

DAM stands for Digital Asset Management. This refers to the management of all digital content such as images, photos, logos, graphics, audio, videos or documents (Indesign, PDF, Word, PowerPoint etc.). It is also known by the abbreviation MAM or Media Asset Management.

Database Publishing
See here Print rejection

A database is a central storage location for a large amount of data that is organized and structured using an electronic system. Databases are responsible for efficient data management. The administration of databases is usually supported by a database management system (DBMS).

Descriptive Analytics
Descriptive Analytics deals with data from the past and provides information about events related to the past. Prepared in the form of reporting, Descriptive Analytics answers the question of „What“ or „What happened?“.

Design thinking is an approach to solving complex problems and developing new ideas. In contrast to such approaches, which approach tasks from the perspective of technical solvability, design thinking focuses on user wishes and needs.

Deep Learning
Deep learning is a subfield of machine learning and therefore also a subfield of artificial intelligence. Artificial neural networks are used to mimic the human brain to find links within processed data to perform human-like tasks such as speech recognition, image recognition, and prediction. Deep learning is mostly applied to unstructured data because, unlike machine learning, it does not rely on pre-structured data.

Demand-Side-Plattform (DSP)
A Demand-Side-Platform, or DSP for short, is a technology platform that combines various software solutions for advertisers in order to automate the purchase of advertising space and inventory (Programmatic Advertising). The most relevant providers on the German market include: Active Agent, Adform, Display & Video 360, MediaMath, The Trade Desk and Xandr (AppNexus).

Diagnostic Analytics
As with Descriptive Analytics, Diagnostic Analytics also looks backwards. The difference to Descriptive Analytics is that here historical data is compared with other data. The aim of diagnostic analytics is to clarify causes, effects and interactions of states. The question „Why did something happen?“ is the focus.

Dialog Marketing
Dialog Marketing as part of direct marketing, is the general term for all marketing activities in which media are used with the aim of establishing an interactive relationship with individuals. The recipient should be induced to make an individual, measurable reaction (response).

Digital Asset Management
See here DAM

Digital Natives
See here Generation Z


Digital Shelf Analytics, DSA
Digital shelf analytics, or DSA for short, is an analysis method that deals with the digital shelf, i.e. the digital shelf or digital sales area. The focus is on the analysis of product performance, buyer behavior and the competitive environment in the sales channels. The aim is to take action-oriented measures from the data obtained in order to make the right adjustments quickly.

Direct-to-Consumer, or D2C, is a sales model or marketing approach in which companies approach customers directly with their products or services. There are no intermediaries or platforms.

Direct selling is when products are sold directly from the producer or manufacturer to the end consumer. There are no intermediary retailers and no salesrooms. Prominent examples of direct selling are Tupperware or Vorwerk.

Distance selling
Distance selling is a type of retailing in which goods or services are sold at a distance or without physical contact between the buyer and seller. Accordingly, trading does not take place in a retail store, but rather by catalog, brochure, Internet, telephone, home shopping or via representatives. Distance selling includes mail order, e-commerce and direct selling.

DOOH is short for digital out-of-home and refers to the digitalised form of outdoor advertising, i.e. advertising measures on screens in public spaces (shopping centres, train stations, airports, fitness studios, etc.). The most common formats include city light posters in pedestrian zones, LED boards on streets and digital advertising pillars. The largest marketers are ströer and Wall Deceaux.

A domain is the globally unambiguous name of a website.

Double-Opt-In The double opt-in is an approval process for consumers in online marketing. In a two-stage process, the consumer confirms that they have agreed to subscribe or to receive further information.

Dropshipping is a form of e-commerce in which the seller does not have the goods in stock, but has them delivered to the customer by the wholesaler or manufacturer after the order has been received. The seller is responsible for marketing and sales, while the logistics are handled by the supplier.

See Digital Shelf Analytics

See Demand-Side-Plattform

See Direct-to-Consumer

– E –

Retail is understood to mean all retail establishments. It is typical for retail companies to sell their goods to consumers (end users), which they procure via various manufacturers or wholesalers and combine into a product range.

The acronym EAI stands for „Enterprise Application Integration“ and enables the integration of various business applications along the value chain. What is special about EAI is that it functions as a central platform and is directly connected to the individual systems.

E-commerce, also known as electronic commerce, is the purchase and sale of goods and services via electronic connections, such as a web store or marketplaces like Amazon. The term also includes business processes, such as online banking, which are conducted electronically. E-commerce is also referred to as online trading or Internet trading.

In information technology, an end user is a person for whom a hardware or software product was developed.

Enterprise Content Management (ECM)
Enterprise Content Management, or ECM for short, is a concept for digitally managing, structuring, processing and archiving all of a company’s information (e.g. invoices, CVs, contracts, letters or study reports). It includes strategies as well as methods and tools. The supporting tools and software solutions are called ECM systems.

ERP is the abbreviation for Enterprise Resource Planning. It encompasses all of a company’s business processes that are necessary for management and control. An ERP system is the appropriate software to support business resource planning.

Excel, or Microsoft Excel, is a spreadsheet program from the Microsoft Office family (including Word, PowerPoint).

An export, especially data export, is the output of data from a system. The export can take the form of data transfer to another program or format conversion.

– F –

acebook is a free social media platform that allows registered users to create their own profiles, upload videos and photos, send messages and stay in touch with acquaintances, colleagues and relatives.

Facet search (faceted search)
The facet search is a search principle. It makes it possible to restrict content on websites or online stores on the basis of different properties in order to achieve individual search hits. The faceted search can be carried out both in advance and afterwards.

Favicon is a made-up word composed of the words „favorite“ and „icon“. These are small, square images in the table bar of the browser, which can be seen next to the name of the visited website when a website is called up.

F-commerce is a variant of e-commerce in which trading takes place via Facebook. The social network is the sales channel here.

Front-end refers to the user interface of a software, i.e. the part of an application or application that is visible to the viewer.

– G –

Generation Y
Generation Y (Gen Y for short), are those people born between 1981 and 1995. Since their teenage or childhood years were around the turn of the millennium, they are also called Millennials. The successor generation to Gen Y is Generation Z.

Generation Z
Generation Z, or Gen Z for short, refers to people born between the years 1995 and 2012. They are also called Generation Greta, Post-Millennials or Digital Natives. They have a high affinity for mobile devices, having grown up with digital technologies. Gen Z is the successor generation to Generation Y.

Generative AI
Generative AI is a variant of Artificial Intelligence that is able to learn from available data in order to generate or create new, creative content from this knowledge. Generative models can be used to create content such as text, images, videos, programming code, or other media.

Google Ads
See Google AdWords

Google Adwords
Google AdWords is an advertising program from Google and is now known as Google Ads. With the help of the online advertising service, companies can place ads in the Google search engine or in the Google Display Network. Based on KeyWords, the ads are played out in the search results and billed according to the bid after a click has been made.

Google Analytics
Google Analytics is a free tool from the Google company to perform web analyses. To use it, a tracking code must be integrated into the website to be analyzed. Afterwards, a variety of data and reports can be accessed, for example, to analyze traffic and visitor behavior.

GUI is an acronym for Graphical User Interface. It is used for communication between computers and users or enables software to be operated using graphical symbols and control elements instead of text commands. On computers, the control is usually done with the mouse, on smartphones or tablets, however, by touching the touch screen with a finger or pen.

– H –

A hashtag is a keyword or a string of words that is marked with a hash (double cross or #). It is used in social media or in the content provided there to link the published content with a specific topic. Hashtags give posts a direct reference and make them easier to find on social networks. The term is composed of the words „hash“ and „tag“. The term is composed of the words „hash“ and „tag“. Hash means hash and tag stands for marking.

Headless Commerce
Headless Commerce is a software approach to e-commerce systems. Here, the front-end is separated from the back-end. Therefore, the frontend and backend exist and function independently of each other.

Hosting refers to a service for operating software or Internet services.

Hypertext markup language, it is used to create a logical and structured structure in a document for the internet.

Hyperlink is the long name for the common term „link“. Hyperlinks are divided into deep link and surface link.

Hyperpersonalisation is a refined form of personalised customer approach and describes the full inclusion of all available information when communicating with customers (real-time and behavioural data).

– I –

Inbound Marketing
Inbound marketing (pull marketing) is a marketing method in which the potential customer becomes aware of the company or the services offered and then independently seeks contact with the provider. The initiative comes from the customer, who is addressed through indirect measures such as blog articles or social media posts. The counterpart to inbound marketing is Outbound Marketing.

Instagram is a free Social Media Plattform. It offers the possibility to edit videos and pictures and share them with friends, like and comment on posts.

During an import, especially data import, existing data or files are imported into a system and transferred.

In online marketing, impressions are visual impressions of a specific search. Impressions indicate how often a user had visual contact with a website URL or an advertising element (ad or banner) or how often these were displayed on the user’s screen. The visual contact only counts the generated insertion and does not provide any information about whether the content was actually perceived by the user.

IT Housekeeping
The term IT housekeeping covers activities aimed at maintaining the performance of an IT system. IT housekeeping ideally takes place on a regular basis and without human intervention, and thus differs from the activity of maintenance.

– J –

Jira is a web-based software from the company Atlassian, which was developed for error management, problem handling and collaboration in agile project management. With Jira, users can create projects and track project progress via status changes.

– K –

Kanban is a methodological approach for agile project management based on the classic to-do list and supports Scrum and other agile methods as a visualization tool. The basic idea is to organize projects in the form of Kanban cards. The Kanban board represents the tasks, responsibilities and processes in columns.

A KeyWord is a term that is entered into the search mask of a search engine in order to obtain search results based on this term. It is also referred to as a search term, keyword or key phrase. KeyWords play an important role in online marketing and search engine marketing (SEM).

AI, also artificial intelligence, is the abbreviation for artificial intelligence. It simulates human intelligence with machines and computer systems. Through automation and machine learning, applications should be able to solve tasks as they are solved by humans or human intelligence.

KPI is an abbreviation for „Key Performance Indicator“. This refers to key or performance indicators that can be used to determine performance or the degree to which objectives have been met.

Classifications help to structure product attributes. This sorts the characteristics of a product into higher-level groups.

– L –

Landing Page
A Landing Page is a website that was created for special purposes or campaigns. It usually consists of only one page, is temporary and separate from the actual website structure. The aim of the landing page is to lead visitors generated by external links to certain conversions (actions). Depending on the target definition, these can be: lead generation, product sales or content sharing.

Large Language Model (LLM)
Large Language Model, or LLM, is a large language model for understanding, processing, and generating natural language. The term “large” comes from the fact that LLMs are trained with huge amounts of data or use deep learning techniques with a large number of parameters. A current model for LLM is ChatGPT.

A lead is an unqualified prospective customer for whom contact data is available. Contact data is left behind, for example, by filling out a web form (downloading content, registering for the newsletter, etc.). However, contacts generated at trade fairs are also leads. Depending on the department that processes the leads, they are divided into MQL (Marketing Qualified Leads) and SQL (Sales Qualified Leads).

Lightning Deals
Lightning Deals are special offers that are limited in time and offer discounts on selected products for a short period of time.

LinkedIn is a free social media platform that specializes in business and career. The platform is best for making global business contacts.

Live commerce refers to events where products and services are offered and sold in a live stream on digital platforms. Social media channels such as Instagram or Facebook are predestined for this, as are video portals such as YouTube. Television sales are not included.

Loyalty Program
This is a customer loyalty programme in which shoppers are offered discounts for their loyalty. Membership of the relevant programme is a prerequisite for taking advantage of the benefits.

– M –

M.A.C.H. is an acronym made up of Microservices, API-first, Cloud-native and Headless. It is a technology concept for modern digital commerce platforms.

Macro Conversion
A macro conversion occurs when a website visitor’s behavior meets the monetary goals of a company. The goals vary depending on the industry or business model. In e-commerce, a macro conversion occurs when a purchase transaction is completed (purchase of a product or subscription to a service) and is therefore revenue-oriented. For products that require explanation, on the other hand, requesting an online demo or a trial version can be a macro conversion (lead-oriented conversion). In publishing or blogs, for example, it is dwell time. The counterpart to macro conversions are micro conversions.

MAM stands for Media Asset Management and describes the central storage, efficient management and media-neutral provision of digital content, or media assets. It is also known by the abbreviation DAM or Digital Asset Management.

A mailing is a mass mailing of advertising messages. It is a classic advertising medium in direct marketing in the form of sales letters, brochures, brochures, reply cards, shipping envelopes or a combination of the aforementioned. The mailings can be addressed personally, partially addressed or delivered to the recipients as a broadcast. If, on the other hand, the advertising messages are sent digitally or by email, this is known as emailing. In contrast to regularly appearing newsletters, e-mailings are a temporary action.

MAP is an abbreviation for Minimum Advertised Price. This is the minimum price set by the manufacturer for which the respective item must be sold.

Marketing Automation
Marketing Automation is the software-supported automation of marketing processes. The software solutions can be used in the creation of content and advertising materials, in the creation and display of product information or in the implementation of campaigns. In the latter case, behavioral data is registered and enriched with information in order to automatically play out individual campaigns.

Marketing Resource Management
See here MRM

Markup represents a markup language that generates structured data. This refers to data that is formatted in a generally understandable way. They are used by search engines such as Google to generate rich snippets.

Marketing Qualified Lead

Machine Learning (ML)
A subset of artificial intelligence that often uses statistical techniques to give machines the ability to „learn“ from data without being given explicit instructions on how to do so. This process is referred to as „training“ a „model“ using a learning „algorithm“ that incrementally improves model performance on a given task.

M-Commerce or Mobile Commerce is a further development of e-commerce and refers to digital purchasing via a mobile device such as a smartphone.

MDM is an acronym and stands for Master Data Management. It is also known under the term Master Data Management. It is a method of linking all master data or business-critical basic data of an enterprise to a reference point. The aim is to improve the quality of master data, avoid redundancies between different systems and enable optimized data exchange.

Media Asset Management
See here MAM

Media Asset
Media Asset is a generic term for every type of digital media. In more detail, a media asset can be an image, a photo, a graphic, a diagram, a video or audio file, a text module or an entire document.

Media Channels
Media Channels are carriers of information and are used as means of communication for people. They can be both digital and analog. Examples of individual channels are print media such as catalogs or brochures, social media, websites or television.

Media-neutral is a term that characterizes data that is not intended for any particular output channel. Media-neutral data is managed in a platform-independent manner and forms the basis for various output situations (web, print, social, etc.) in omnichannel marketing.

MeisterTask is a Kanban-based online service for task management by MeisterLabs. Like Trello, MeisterTask allows users to create task notes in columns. MeisterTask also offers a mind mapping tool and is DSGVO compliant with European servers.

Metadata is structured background information about files that is machine-readable and analyzable. In a DAM system, they serve as information brokers in the search, retrieval, and archiving of media assets. To do this, they add data and descriptions to the standard information of a file (name, size, creation date, etc.).

See Metaversum

Metaverse is an idea to create a collective virtual space in which users can interact with each other as avatars. In contrast to classic websites and social networks, the metaverse is intended to represent a decentralized digital space that is not operated by individual companies. Rather, the permanent existence is to be made possible through the networking of different participants and 3D worlds. The metaverse is focused on real-time interactions and technologically characterized by virtual reality (VR) and augmented reality (AR).

Micro-conversions are conversions that work towards macro conversions. They are the preparatory steps for this. For example, registering for a newsletter, adding a product to the shopping cart, or clicking on a link can be seen as a micro-conversion. Micro-conversions serve to initiate business relationships or the monetary goals of a company.

Microservices are individual, independent core functions and components of a software. Each microservice executes a specific use case.

Middleware is software that connects and mediates between different applications, tools and databases. Derived from the term „middleware“, the software is located „in the middle“ of these applications, but works invisibly in the background. Middleware is divided into two categories: Middleware for integrating enterprise applications (enterprise middleware) and platform middleware for connecting application architectures.

MLM is short for Multi Language Management. It enables companies to communicate professionally in other countries i.e. in other languages.

Mobile Commerce
See M-Commerce

Model (in conjunction with AI)
Once a machine learning algorithm has been trained on data, the result of the process is called a model. This can then be used to make predictions.

Monitoring is the monitoring of processes and procedures by means of technical aids or other observation systems. It is used in the fields of IT, marketing, medicine and natural sciences. When we talk about IT monitoring, we mean the monitoring of a system for its functionalities in order to detect failures and their source as quickly as possible. In marketing, monitoring is understood to mean the monitoring of KPIs (e.g. the number of sales transactions in an online shop).

MQL is the abbreviation for Marketing Qualified Lead. This refers to leads that are considered relevant by the marketing department and are managed. The aim is to further qualify interested parties by establishing a targeted dialog. If the MQL proves to be a potential customer, it is then converted into an SQL and forwarded to the sales team for further processing.

MRM stands for Marketing Resource Management. These are processes and methods for controlling and optimising internal and external marketing and communication resources. The corresponding software support is referred to as the MRM system.

Multichannel marketing is the discipline of managing communication and sales activities across multiple media channels. The goal is to address many people with different channel preferences through the broad use of channels. Offline communication such as print ads, sponsoring, trade fairs & events or direct sales, but also online communication such as SEM, social media marketing, display ads, online PR or E-Mail marketing, are appropriate ways to use the channels. Multichannel marketing often consists of a mix of online and offline measures. In contrast to omnichannel marketing, the channels are used independently of each other and are therefore not interrelated.

MVP (Minimum Viable Product)
An MVP, or Minimum Viable Product, is a minimal version of an IT product that can be created with as little effort as possible and used to gain customer or generate user feedback, which in turn is taken into account in subsequent development steps.

– N –

In online marketing, a newsletter is an e-mail that is sent to a group of subscribers at regular intervals. Depending on the newsletter, the content can be topic-, product-, company-, sales- or event-related. Recipients must explicitly agree to receive the newsletter Double opt-in. Newsletters are usually sent via a newsletter program.

The term „nurturing“ comes from „to nurture“ and means to care for and nourish. In the lead management process, lead nurturing refers to the process that includes all measures to provide the lead with relevant content at the right time and to qualify it further. The primary goal is to convert a lead into a customer. In the process, leads pass through different stages (MQL and SQL). Nurturing is not only done for new customer acquisition. It is also used to strengthen customer loyalty, reactivate inactive customers or win back former customers.

– O –

Offpage is the counterpart of onpage in the context of search engine optimization (SEO). These are measures that are carried out outside your own website with the aim of networking your own website well on the Internet. Backlinks and social signals play an important role in this context.

“Omni” comes from Latin and means “each” or “all.” In addition to channels, in marketing it refers to the inclusion of all touchpoints in the customer approach. The touchpoints, which include both offline and online/digital channels, are both sales and information channels.

Online Catalogue
An Online Catalogue is the digital version of a print publication. Online catalogues are linked to additional functions such as searches, page overviews or direct links to online shops.

Online Trade
See here E-Commerce

Onpage refers to SEO measures that are implemented on your own website in order to increase organic visibility in search engines and the ranking for certain keywords. These include loading times, technology, text and keywords.

On-Premises or On-Prem is a software usage model „on the user’s own premises“. This means that commercial software, whether purchased or rented, is not made available on the provider’s servers, but is operated by the user himself. This can take place both in the user’s own computer centre and in rented servers in computer centres. The counterpart to on-premises is Software-as-a-Service (SaaS).

see Out-of-Home

Open Source
Software for which the source code is open and can be viewed by third parties and used free of charge is referred to as open source.

Outbound Marketing
Outbound marketing (push marketing) is one of the traditional forms of marketing. In this method, potential customers are approached via advertising measures. Measures include telephone canvassing, trade show participation, sponsorships, TV commercials or radio spots, direct mail, e-mailing, banners, posters and others. Outbound marketing is the counterpart to inbound marketing.

Out-of-home (OoH for short) refers to advertising measures that are shown in outdoor areas or public places, i.e. outside enclosed spaces such as streets, airports or supermarkets. Advertising media include, for example, billboard advertising, advertising on advertising pillars, transportation advertising, ambient advertising and point-of-sale marketing.

– P –

PBC (Packages Business Capabilities)
PBC is an abbreviation for Packages Business Capabilities. These are multiple microservices that are bundled into groups and represent a clearly defined business capability.

PEO is an abbreviation for „Product Export Option“. This refers to filters on articles or products of the OMN, e.g. to be able to define different prices or texts for an advertising material or for a web store.

PIM is an abbreviation for Product Information Management. This means the administration of all product-defining information and its provision for use in output channels. In addition to traditional product master data (item price, technical specifications, etc.), this information also includes advertising texts and associated image material. The supporting technology is called PIM system.

Pinterest represents a visual search engine or an online pinboard where users can upload their graphics, images or charts and link to external pages.

Plug-ins are software extensions that are easy to install and complement the standard solution.

PoS is the abbreviation for point-of-sale. It describes the place of sale of goods or services and functions as an interface between the company and the customer.

Predictive AI
Predictive AI is a type of AI that generates forecast data to predict future events. In order to make informed predictions, historical data is collected and analyzed by predictive AI.

Predictive Analytics
Predictive Analytics, also known as Advanced Analytics, is a method of analysis that deals with the probable future. It attempts to identify tendencies, detect deviations from standard values early on and predict future trends as accurately as possible. The focus is on the question „What could or will happen in the future?

Prescriptive Analytics
Prescriptive Analytics deals with the future just like Predictive Analytics. While Predictive Analytics determines probabilities of occurrence for certain events, Prescriptive goes one step further and recommends decisions to lead to optimal results or minimize risks. The question behind Prescriptive Analytics is: What actions should be taken for a given outcome?

The acronym PRINCE stands for PRojects IN Controlled Environments. It is a framework that conceives of projects as temporary organizations. PRINCE2 forms the corresponding system, consisting of process definitions, role descriptions, templates and methods.

Print Publishing
Print Publishing, also called database publishing, is a database-supported creation of publications based on a central data source (usually PIM systems). The prerequisite for extracting the data are templates that define the design rules of the products and are linked to the data. The output to the output formats (e.g. Adobe InDesign®, QuarkXPress, MS Office) can be either partially or fully automated. Print rejection is suitable for products that are based on recurring design patterns, such as Catalogs, price lists, data sheets or product descriptions. Providers of print rejection tools include InBetween, priint:comet or Xactuell.

Print Publishing
Print Publishing is the publishing of print media (e.g. catalogues, price lists, data sheets, documentation) on the basis of media-neutral data.

Product Experience Management

Product Information Management

Product Lifecycle Management
PLM is an abbreviation and stands for Product Lifecycle Management or Product Lifecycle Management. This is an approach that makes it possible to integrate all of a product’s information throughout its lifecycle – both product data and processes. PLM systems are used to manage and control the information. The difference between a PLM and PIM system is that a PIM system focuses on current product information and does not include all information about a product. Also, unlike PIM systems, PLM systems do not contain marketing data that supports sales. Der Fokus von PLM liegt in den Produktlebenszyklus-Phasen (Konzept, Design, Produktion, Wartung und Entsorgung), statt in der Vermarktung.

Product attributes
See Attributes

Product communikation
Product communication involves market communication measures that focus on the product to be marketed. The main task is the structured preparation, enrichment and dissemination of product-relevant information in the appropriate channels.

Programmatic Advertising
Programmatic Advertising is a term used in online marketing and refers to the automated purchase of digital advertising space and its automated display. The purchase and placement process is controlled by user data and algorithms. The advertising inventory can be purchased both directly and through auctions.

Process Management
Process Management is a methodology to analyze and continuously improve processes within Workflow Management. In contrast to workflow management, which is located at the operational level, process management represents the technical and conceptual level.

Pull Marketing
See Inbound Marketing

Push Marketing
See Outbound Marketing

PWA stands for „Progressive Web App“ and is a method of app development. It enables the properties of apps on web pages. This symbiosis was developed to make double development unnecessary. A responsive or mobile website and an additional native app can be created in one step. PWA can be used without downloading an app, as they are accessed via URLs. In addition, unlike the classic web app, a PWA can be used offline.

PXM is an acronym and stands for Product Experience Management. It supplements the PIM with the area of contextualization. What is meant here is that the descriptive texts and media of a product are provided to the customer individually or in relation to his application, depending on the context. The technical data of a product remain unaffected. PXM, as a further process step between product data enrichment and product data distribution, supports the information needs of customers for different benefits.

– R –

In online marketing, ranking refers to the order of search results in search engines. The higher the position is, the better the ranking is.

Maturity Model
The maturity model is about maintenance levels of product information related to the respective output channel.

REST API iis an abbreviation of the two terms „REST“ for REpresentational State Transfer and „API“ for Application Programming Interface. The REST API is a programming interface that enables the exchange of information on different systems – especially for Web services. The REST API is based on the paradigms and behavior of the World Wide Web (WWW).

Re-Commerce is a combination of e-commerce and re, where the re stands for the words “again” or “back”. This refers to the trade in used products via online platforms, i.e. second-hand products.

A relaunch stands for a new start of something that already exists. This can be a product, a logo, a website or a brand that is changed or improved. The goal is to make the existing attractive to the target groups again through the revised relaunch.

Responsive Design
Responsive design is the use of design and technical possibilities when creating a website. This enables websites to adapt to the respective end device of the viewer (menu structure, texts, input methods, etc.) in order to display the content in a legible manner. Hence the term “responsive”, which means “reacting”. The opposite of Responsive Design is Adaptive Design.

Retail Media
Retail Media is a form of e-commerce marketing. These are advertisements on websites or apps of retailers. The most common form is “Sponsored Products” in the search results and on the category and/or product detail pages.

Return on Ad Spend (ROAS)
Return on Ad Spend, or ROAS for short, is a key figure for evaluating and comparing advertisements. The value is used to quantify the actual profit generated per advertising expenditure in euros.

Reverse Commerce
Another expression for Re-Commerce.

Rich Client
Rich Client, usually also known as Smart-Client, is a client application that executes certain standard functions on the client side, i.e. on the workstations, and leaves the complex applications to the connected servers. Rich Client is also understood to be software that implements application-specific functionality such as the GUI (graphical user interface) and the structure of the software system directly at the client in desktop applications or on mobile platforms.

Rich Snippet
Rich Snippets are an extension of snippets. In addition to the three components (URL, title and description), they can contain further elements such as stars, links, images, videos, price details, etc.. The aim is to make the search results more visually appealing and at the same time more informative in order to increase the CTR. Rich snippets are generated via markup data.

ROPO stands for “Research Online, Purchase Offline” and describes a purchasing process in which the customer researches online and then buys offline, i.e. in a shop.

– S –

SaaS (Software-as-a-Service)
SaaS is short for Software-as-a-Service. This is a sub-area of cloud computing and represents a software model that enables the user to use software via a web browser. The software is operated and maintained by the respective provider. The counterpart to Software-as-a-Service (SaaS) is On-Premises.

SAFe stands for Scaled Agile Framework. It is a framework that can be used to scale Scrum and other agile methodologies to an enterprise. The basic idea is to divide all work steps into cycles that are coordinated across three levels (portfolio level, program level, team level).

Sales Qualified Lead (SQL)
SQL is the abbreviation for Sales Qualified Lead. This is a lead for which there is a probability that a purchase will be concluded. A Sales Qualified Lead is the next stage of an MQL and can also be the preliminary stage of a customer if a deal is closed.

An interface, specifically a software interface, forms the part of a software that enables data exchange between different solutions. By means of interfaces, a transition is created whereby systems are able to communicate with each other.

S-Commerce, or Social Commerce, is a form of e-commerce in which sales are made via an established social media platform (e.g. Instagram, Facebook, TikTok and Pinterest).

Scrum is a methodical approach for agile project management in which complex projects are divided into prioritized individual steps and implemented in so-called sprints. Instead of planning projects in advance as in classic project management, a step-by-step approach is used here to maintain flexibility and allow for quick adjustments.

SEA stands for Search Engine Advertising and refers to advertising in search engines such as Google.

SEM is the abbreviation for Search Engine Marketing and means search engine advertising. It is a subfield of online marketing and includes all measures to lead visitors to one’s own website via search engines such as Google. SEM is a generic term for SEA (search engine advertising) and SEO (search engine optimization).

SEO is the abbreviation for Search Engine Optimisation. This is the constant optimisation of your own website in order to achieve a better ranking or a better listing in organic searches.

Service Desk
A Service Desk is an issue tracking system or ticket system. It is a software for the receipt, confirmation, classification and processing of customer requests in the form of tickets or cases.

Visibility index
The visibility index forms a value that indicates the visibility or position of a website in search engines. The higher this value, the better the visibility. The value can be determined via SEO tools (such as Sistrix, Xovi and Seolytics). However, each SEO tool calculates its own visibility index.

A Site Map is the hierarchical structure of a website.

SLA (Service Level Agreement)
SLA is the abbreviation for Service Level Agreement. This is a contract for recurring services between the client and the service provider. The special thing about an SLA is that it defines the service level or quality of service of the service to be provided (e.g. availability, response time, etc.).

Smart Search Engine
Are intelligent search engines that use advanced artificial intelligence and machine learning to process search queries.

A snippet is a teaser for a website that consists of a URL, headline and a short description and is displayed in this interaction in the search results of a search engine. It serves as a preview of a website and is decisive as to whether users visit the website or not.

Social Commerce
See S-Commerce

Social Media
Social Media is the generic term for all platforms on the Internet through which users can network with each other or in groups in order to exchange information (publication of information, opinions, experiences, knowledge, photos and videos). Digital platforms include, for example, Facebook, Twitter, Xing, LinkedIn, YouTube, Pinterest, Instagram, TikTok and many more.

SOAP, originally for „Simple Object Access Protocol“, is a network protocol that allows data transfer between systems on the web. It serves as a connection point between the client and a server and enables the services of the server to be executed.

Structured Query Language (SQL)
SQL is an abbreviation and stands for “Structured Query Language”. This is a standard programming language for databases. SQL can be used to create database structures in relational databases as well as to edit and query the data sets based on them.

Search Engine
A search engine is a program with which the World Wide Web can be searched for certain search terms (KeyWords). The search is performed according to a specific algorithm. After entering the search term, the results sorted by relevance are displayed in a hit list. The results are usually websites that have been indexed by the search engine. Examples of search engines are Google, Yahoo!, Bing, Baidu, DuckDuckGo or Yandex.

Master Data Management

– T –

Tagging means marking or labeling content. Tags or labels are used to provide content with appropriate keywords. In the DAM context, this refers to the tagging of digital assets in order to find managed files such as images, documents, audios or videos using keywords

The term TechStack encompasses the set of technologies used in an enterprise. It is about data sources, programming languages, frameworks and technology services used to build and run an application.

A template forms the basis for the design of documents, websites, catalogues or brochures. With the help of templates, users can fill and finish the corresponding templates with graphical, textual or multimedia content.

Deep Learning
A field of machine learning (ML) that attempts to mimic activity in layers of neurons in the brain to learn how to recognize complex patterns in data. The “depth” in deep learning refers to the large number of neuron layers in contemporary ML models that help learn rich representations of data to achieve better performance gains.

TikTok is a free social media video platform. It offers users the opportunity to watch, record and edit video clips. The platform is particularly popular among Generation Z.

In online marketing, traffic is the number of visitors to a website. Traffic not only reflects the attractiveness of a website, it is also a ranking criterion for Google. The higher the traffic, the higher the quality of a website. Web analysis tools such as Google Analytics are used to determine traffic.

Transfer Learning
A modeling approach that uses knowledge acquired in one problem to solve another or related problem, reducing the need for significant additional training data and computation.

Translation Management
Translation Management describes the automation of translation processes during the production of content in different languages. The supporting technology or software is called Translation Management System, or TMS for short.

Trello is a Kanban-based online task management service from Atlassian to support cross-team collaboration. Trello allows users to create task slips in columns that represent individual work phases.

TMS is the abbreviation for Translation Management System. This is a software for centralizing and automating translation workflows. Using TMS (e.g. Across or Trados), translation jobs can be created and submitted to translation service providers, terminologists, proofreaders and editors. TMS can also be connected to various systems such as a PIM system.

In marketing, touchpoint refers to all possible points of contact with which a potential or existing customer comes into contact with a company, brand or product. This is why touchpoints are also referred to as touch points. Touchpoints can be digital (website, apps, social media presence, etc.) as well as offline or on-site (retail store, service desk, etc.). They are differentiated into direct and indirect touchpoints. Direct touchpoints are controllable touchpoints that a company can influence itself, as communication takes place directly between the customer and the company (SEASEA stands for Search Engine Advertising and refers to advertising in search engines such as Google. Customer Journey.

Twitter is a social media platform that can be used as a means of communication of short messages between individuals, organizations and businesses. All messages (also called tweets) have a maximum length of 280 characters.

– U –

UCG is an abbreviation for User-Generated Content. This refers to original, brand-specific content created by customers and published on social media or other channels.

Unbeaufsichtigtes Lernen
Ein Modell versucht, die Struktur eines Datensatzes zu lernen, wobei oft versucht wird, latente Gruppierungen in den Daten ohne explizite Kennzeichnung zu identifizieren. Das Ergebnis des unüberwachten Lernens ist oft ein guter Input für einen Algorithmus für überwachtes Lernen zu einem späteren Zeitpunkt.

Unified Commerce
Unified Commerce is the next evolutionary stage of the omnichannel strategy. The front-end and back-end systems of all of an online retailer’s channels are connected via one platform and centralised in a single software platform.

Unique Selling Proposition

User Experience (UX)
The term user experience (UX) is used to describe the psychological and physiological experience of a user when interacting with a product, service, brand, or facility.

USP is the abbreviation for Unique Selling Proposition. In marketing, it refers to a value proposition or an outstanding feature that sets products or services apart from similar offerings by competitors. The aim is to encourage potential customers to make a purchase. USP is also referred to as unique selling proposition.

– Ü –

Überwachtes Lernen
Ein Modell versucht, die Struktur eines Datensatzes zu lernen, wobei oft versucht wird, latente Gruppierungen in den Daten ohne explizite Kennzeichnung zu identifizieren. Das Ergebnis des unüberwachten Lernens ist oft ein guter Input für einen Algorithmus für überwachtes Lernen zu einem späteren Zeitpunkt.

– V –

V-Commerce also called Voice Commerce or Voice-Powered Commerce) is a sub-area of Conversational Commerce in which goods or services are offered and sold via voice assistants (e.g. Alexa, Siri or Google Assistant). Users of smart devices can order goods or services simply by voice command.

Verarbeitung natürlicher Sprache
Befähigung von Maschinen, Sprache zu analysieren, zu verstehen und zu manipulieren.

Der Versandhandel ist eine Form des Handels, welcher über Distanz erfolgt (siehe Distanzhandel). Die Ware wird durch unpersönliche Kommunikationsmittel angeboten (z.B. Kataloge), welche nach Kauf über Zustelldienste versandt wird. Die Bezahlung erfolgt nicht bar. Depending on the target group, mail order is divided into B2B and B2C. Auch wird der Versandhandel nach dem angebotenen Sortiment in Spezialversender und Universalversender unterteilt.

Reinforcement learning
A field of machine learning concerned with the development of software agents that learn goal-directed behavior through trial and error in an environment that provides rewards or punishments in response to the agent’s actions (referred to as “policy”) to achieve that goal.

Voice Commerce

VPB is an abbreviation for Virtual Product Bundling. Digital products or services are bundled and sold as a package (e.g. software, e-books, online courses or digital subscriptions combined in a single package).

VR (Virtual Reality)
VR stands for „Virtual Reality“ and describes a computer-generated, interactive reality.

– W –

Walled Gardens
In the context of digital advertising, Walled Gardens are closed platforms or ecosystems on which advertisers can reach their target groups. Examples of Walled Gardens include Facebook, Google and Amazon, which possess extensive user data and use it for targeted advertising within their closed advertising environment.

Web Client
In the client-server model of the World Wide Web, a Web client represents the user side of the Web. Therefore, Web clients are also called browsers. Communication between them takes place according to the request-response procedure (question-answer procedure). The Web client sends a request to the Web server via HTTP and receives the answer via HTML.

Web Content Management (WCM)
See also Content Management System (CMS)

See Crawler

Web Server
A Web Server transmits documents to clients such as web browsers. A web server can be understood as the hardware with web server software or just the web server software itself. Web servers are used locally as in a company’s internal intranet but mainly as a WWW service on the internet.

Web store
A Web store, or online store, is a website to sell products or services over the Internet (WWW) (electronic commerce or e-commerce). The websites are based on a store system.

Web-to-Print means the template-based design and individualisation of advertising media without knowledge of special graphics software. Web-to-Print is a sub-sector of web-to-publish.

Web-to-Publish refers to the web-based creation and transmission of documents for various output channels (print, online, mobile). Web-to-Print, which is purely related to print media, is a sub-area of Web-to-Publish.

A whitelist, also known as a white list or positive list, is a list of trusted email senders in email marketing. People or companies that are on a whitelist and are classified as trustworthy can send e-mails directly to the recipient’s mailbox without being marked as spam. The opposite of this is the blacklist.

Work-Breakdown-Structure (WBS)
The term Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) refers to a work breakdown structure (WBS) that visualizes all the tasks required to complete a project and divides them into work packages and subtasks. For project managers, a WBS forms the basis for schedule, process, resource and cost planning.

Workflow Management
A workflow is a sequence of operations. A workflow represents the sequence of corresponding, related work steps and consists of a start event and end result. The methodology behind this is known as workflow management. It aims to design and coordinate the optimal workflows and to check the status of the processing. Since workflow management represents the operative level, it is not the same as process management. The supporting technology or software is called Workflow Management System.

WWW is an abbreviation for World Wide Web. It is a part or a service of the Internet to provide web pages. The contents of a website are displayed using a browser (e.g. Firefox, Internet Explorer or Chrome).

– X –

Xing is a free social media platform for careers and professions. Unlike LinkedIn, it has a strong focus on German-speaking users.

XML stands for „Extensible Markup Language“. This is a text-based format for exchanging structured information. XML is derived from the older standard „SGML (Standard Generalized Markup Language), and is used as a markup language, like HTML, for marking up data. The difference between XML and HTML is that XML is used to structure and meaning data, while HTML focuses on the visual presentation and behavior of data on the Web.

– Y –

The social media platform YouTube is the most popular Internet video portal in the world and allows users to publish, watch and rate videos free of charge.

– Z –

Eine Zielgruppe bezeichnet eine Teilmenge an Menschen, die mit Marketing-Maßnahmen erreicht werden sollen. Per Marktsegmentierung wird der Gesamtmarkt dabei in Käufergruppen mit ähnlichen Merkmalen unterteilt. The main criteria for market segmentation are demographics, geography, psychographics and behavior, which in turn can be broken down further. Die Weiterentwicklung der Zielgruppen bilden die Buyer Personas.


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